Five Card Story: Dust

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a Five Card Flickr story by Westlhey Canonigo created Sep 29 2020, 05:10:02 am. Create a new one!

flickr photo credits: (1) cogdogblog (2) krutscjo (3) bionicteaching (4) Serenae (5) Serenae

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• William James (1890) defined a basic duality of the self: it is both the known, “Me,” and the knower, “I.” In modern terminology, the “Me” is the self-concept, or content of the self—our knowledge about who we are, and the “I” is self-awareness, or the act of thinking about ourselves.

• Gallup’s studies examined whether animals have a sense of self by looking at their reactions when placed in front of a mirror. He found that the great apes seem to have a sense of self—they recognize that their image has changed when anesthetized and a red dye is placed on part of their face. Dolphins showed a similar response. A similar test used with human infants suggested that self-recognition develops at about two years of age.

• Other developmental studies show that the concept of self evolves from being concrete and focused on observable characteristics to being more abstract and focused on psychological characteristics during the course of childhood and adolescence.

A. Functions of the Self •Researchers have found that the self serves both an organizational function and an executive function.

1. Organizational Function of the Self

• We use self-schemas, mental structures that help us to organize our knowledge about ourselves, to organize our knowledge about ourselves.

• Markus (1977) and others have found that we are more likely to remember information better if we relate it to ourselves. This is referred to as the self-reference effect. Integrating information with our self-schemas helps us organize it better and connect it to other information about ourselves, which makes us more likely to remember it later.

2. Self-Regulation: The Executive Function

•The self also serves an executive function, regulating people’s behavior, choices, and plans for the future. According to the self-regulatory resource model, self-control is a limited resource and people have a limited amount of energy to devote to self-control and that spending it on one task limits the amount that can be spent on another task.

B. Cultural Differences in Defining the Self

• In many Western cultures, people have an independent view of the self, focusing on their own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions; in many Asian and other non-Western cultures, people have an interdependent view of the self, defining themselves in terms of relationships with other people.

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flickr photo credits: (1) cogdogblog (2) krutscjo (3) bionicteaching (4) Serenae (5) Serenae

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